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Fixing Leaks

During Fix a Leak Week, from March 17-23, residents and property owners were encouraged to learn ways to save water by identifying and fixing water leaks.

Across the country, easy-to-fix leaks can add up to more than one trillion gallons of lost water every year, not only wasting water but resulting in higher water bills. The guidelines below offer ways to spot leaks and repair leaking faucets and toilets.

Help spread the message of Fix a Leak Week! Participate in the week-long Twitter party and share your stories using hashtag #fixaleak.

Finding a leak

Checking your water meter
If you receive a high water bill that you think may be caused by a leak in or around your home, check the leak detection procedure at the water meter.

Typically, the water meter is located in the front yard, near the street or sidewalk. Use a screwdriver to remove the meter-box lid. Then flip the meter lens cap to expose the meter face.

Dirt may need to be removed to expose the meter dial. The meter face will look similar to this diagram.

How to read your water meter and potentially discover leaks.

To determine if the meter has been misread, copy down the numbers on the meter's register. (The register looks similar to a car odometer.) Compare the numbers on the register to your "Current Reading" on your utility bill. The reading from the register should be equal to or higher than the "Current Reading."

If the reading on the meter is lower than the reading listed on your bill, the meter may have been misread. Call the Water & Sewer Department's Customer Relations at 305-665-7477 for a re-read and corrected bill.

If the meter reading is substantially higher than the reading on your bill, there may be a water leak.

Locating the leak

Water Leakage Potential

Diameter of stream
Potential water wasted every
3 months if water pressure is at 60 psi
(pounds per square inch)
Size of leak

Inches

mm

Gallons
Daily Average in Gallons
Gallons reflected on bill (CCF*)
Potential cost**
1/4
6.5
1,181,500
13,122
1580
$14,895.37
3/16
4.8
652,000
7,244
890
$8,148.68
1/8
3.2
296,000
3,288
394
$3,608.37
1/16
1.6
74,000
822
98.5
$777.05

* Note: 1 CCF (100 cubic feet) = 748 gallons. WASD uses CCF to determine bill amount
** Note: Dollar calculations based upon published rates and fees for combined water & sewer for 5/8" meter, effective Oct. 1, 2010

What does this mean?

A leak the size of a standard pencil eraser can mean the loss of 1,181,500 gallons in just three months -- or enough to fill an average-sized swimming pool 78.7 times. This can quickly translate into a high bill.
(Assumption: average swimming pool holds 15,000 gallons)

Most meter faces have a flow indicator. If there is no water being used at the time of inspection, and the flow indicator is moving or spinning, there may be a leak somewhere in or around your home.

Not all leaks are big and clearly noticeable. If the meter does not have a flow indicator or the flow indicator is not moving, continue with these steps to further evaluate the situation:

  1. Write down the numbers on the meter's register. Do not use any water for two hours, then take another reading from your meter's register. Compare it to the first reading. If the second reading is higher, there may be a leak.
  2. To pinpoint whether the leak is coming from inside or outside the home, close the house valve (generally located on an outside wall where the water line enters the home, or near the water heater).
  3. Repeat Step 1. If the meter continues to move, the leak may be outside the home in the service line that leads from the meter to the home, or in any water-using device that may be hooked to the system outside the home.
  4. If the meter does not move after your second test, the leak may be inside the home.
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Checking your toilet

The most common toilet leaks are often the most costly because they represent the greatest water usage in the home. A leaky toilet can waste more than 200 gallons of water per day, or 73,000 gallons a year!

Most toilet flush tanks work in the same way. The tank contains two valves: a flush valve and a refill valve. One type of refill valve is commonly called a ballcock/flush ball valve. The other type of flush tank has modern plastic valves.

To check both the flush valve and the refill valve for leaks, put a couple drops of dark food coloring or a leak detection dye tablet in the tank. Do this when the tank is fully refilled after a flush. Do not use the toilet. Check the bowl after 20 minutes. If colored water is in the bowl, there is a leak. Depending on the problem, one of the following actions may stop the leak:

Adjustment options for the ballcock/flush-ball valves

1. Bend the end of the float arm to adjust the tank water level to below the top of the overflow pipe.

2. Replace the float ball, which may have filled with water.

3. Replace a faulty or corroded float ball shut-off valve.

4. Tighten a loose trip handle by turning the nut counterclockwise (looking from inside the tank).

5. Straighten the control arm so it is free to move up and down without touching surrounding parts.

6. Replace a sticking rod guide or ball rod.

7. Clean a corroded brass valve seat with steel wool or with No. 500 wet-or-dry abrasive paper.

8. Raise the guide arm if it does not allow the flush ball to rise enough for a complete flush. Be careful not to adjust too high, which will prevent the ball from completely closing.

ballcock/flush-ball valves  

 

Adjustment options for modern plastic valves

1. Adjust the sliding pinch clamp on the adjustment rod up to raise the water level or down to lower it. Tank water level should be just below top of overflow tube when toilet has refilled and shut off.

2. Reposition bowl refill tube. If it is out of place, water is routed directly into the tank rather than flowing water into the bowl. The refill tube should aim directly into the overflow pipe but should not reach below water level.

3. Replace defective refill tube with new plastic refill tube.

4. Replace flapper by disconnecting the lift hardware from the trip arm and sliding the flapper (5) up and off the overflow pipe. Install the new unit, reversing directions, and connect the lift hardware back to the trip arm. Cut off excess lift chain (6) or leave dangling if it doesn't interfere with toilet operation.

modern plastic valves 

Checking and changing a flapper is a snap. For everything you need to know, including which replacement flapper you need, go to http://www.toiletflapper.org/.

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Checking your faucet

Another common source for leaks is the faucet. Leaking faucets are usually caused by worn washers or "O" rings. Water lost because of a delay in leaky faucet repair can be more costly than buying replacement parts. The chart below shows how much water a "slow drip" can waste, assuming the standard 60 psi (pounds per square inch) pressure in your pipe.

Fixing leaks for compression-type faucets
1. Shut off the water supply to the faucet being repaired.

2. Remove the cap on top of the handle, and remove the exposed screw by turning it counterclockwise.

3. Pull off the handle.

4. Remove the valve stem from the faucet body by placing the handle back onto the valve stem and rotating it in the direction that normally turns on the water (direction can differ depending on faucet design).

5. Remove the screw from the base of the valve stem, and replace the worn washer with a new washer, making sure it's the right size.

6. Reassemble the faucet. Check to make sure it works properly and the leak has been repaired.

faucet assembly

 
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Facts and tips

About 70% of the typical family's indoor water usage is in the bathroom. This is partly because water is used at a faster "flow rate" than in any other part of the home. Toilets and showers usually have a flow rate of 5-7 gallons per minute; most dishwashers and clothes washers use less than three gallons per minute.

Toilet: 5 to 7 gallons per flush (Non high-efficiency toilet)
Shower: 5 to 7 gallons per minute (Non high-efficiency shower)
Bathtub: 36 to 60 gallons per bath
Dishwasher: 10 to 25 gallons per cycle
Washing machine: 20 to 45 gallons per load

  Home indoor water usage

Room

Percentage of water used

Bathroom

70%

Laundry

15%

Kitchen
10%
Other
5%


Rules and suggestions

  • Check the outside faucets for leaking water, particularly during the peak summer watering season. A hose hidden in the grass, accidentally left dripping, can waste thousands of gallons of water over the course of a summer.
  • Water only when your grass shows signs of stress, wilting or discoloration, or when footprints are visible after you walk on it.
  • Water only in the morning or evening when evaporation levels are lowest and only during authorized hours. In Miami-Dade, it's the law! No watering between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. For more information, call 786-552-8974.
  • Add a rain sensor device to your lawn sprinkler system.
  • Discover how you can use rain water to water your lawn at a rain barrel workshop.
  • Use sprinkler heads that distribute big drops of water close to the ground.
  • Consider Florida-friendly landscaping, which include native, drought-tolerant, climate adapted. Newly planted Florida-friendly landscaping requires 30 days of irrigation to establish its root system. After this time, natural rainfall is the only water needed!
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Page Last Edited: Fri Apr 4, 2014 2:15:25 PM
waterconservation
 
 
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