About Miami-Dade County
The estimated County population was 2,761,581 in 2018.
Miami-Dade County encompasses more than 2,000 square miles (larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware). One-third of Miami-Dade County is located in Everglades National Park. Our community is located along the southeast tip of the Florida peninsula. It is bounded by Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Everglades National Park to the west, the Florida Keys to the south, and Broward County to the North.
The Miami-Dade Board of County Commissioners is the governing body of unincorporated Miami-Dade County and has broad, regional powers to establish policies for Miami-Dade County services. The government provides major metropolitan services countywide and city-type services for residents of unincorporated areas.
Miami-Dade has a Mayor with the power to veto Commission action items. In January 2007, the Mayor was given additional powers providing for the oversight of the day-to-day operations of Miami-Dade. The Mayor can only serve two terms of four years.
Through ordinances and resolutions, the 13-member Commission sets policies and establishes laws for the community. Miami-Dade County is structured into 13 districts. Residents choose only from among candidates running in the district in which they live. Commissioners are chosen in non-partisan, single-district elections and can serve two four-year staggered terms, with elections scheduled every two years.
In November 2012, the Miami-Dade County Term Limit Amendment was approved, modifying the County charter to establish term limits of two consecutive four-year terms.
The most populous county in Florida, Miami-Dade County is home to 34 incorporated municipalities, cities, towns and villages, as well as to unincorporated communities and neighborhoods. The City of Miami is the largest municipality, followed by Hialeah, Miami Gardens, Miami Beach, North Miami and Coral Gables.
The areas of the County that do not fall within municipal boundaries comprise the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade. With a population exceeding one million people, the unincorporated area, if declared a city, would form the largest city in Florida and one of the largest in the nation.
From the coral reefs to the Everglades the unique subtropical environment of South Florida makes this area unlike any other in the United States. Four hundred years ago the area was a center of international rivalry between the English and French to the north and the Spanish to the south. When the United States gained possession of Florida, the major industry was “wrecking” – living off the spoils from shipwrecks caused by sailing too close to the coral reefs. Early settlements were located near the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. In 1825 a lighthouse was built on Key Biscayne to warn passing ships of the dangerous reefs.
The modern era began with the arrival of Henry Flagler’s railroad in 1896. A system of drainage canals began to crisscross the area after the turn of the century. The destruction of mangroves and draining swampland created new land for settlers. In the 1920s a real estate boom changed the area as new subdivisions and tourist resorts were built. From one winter season to the next the City of Miami changed so rapidly that visitors remarked that it had “grown like magic” and Miami came to be know as the "Magic City."
During World War II the military brought thousands of troops to the area for training. When the war ended many returned with their families to live here permanently. A growth surge in population followed the war and the number of tourists began a steady increase as advancements in transportation helped Miami-Dade become a year-round resort.
Today’s Miami International Airport helps make the county the North American gateway to Latin America and the Caribbean.
In the 1960s thousands of refugees from Cuba began coming into the area. In the 1990s Haitians fled their homeland to come here seeking a better life. Emigration helped the County’s population surpass one million in 1962. Today many different ethnic groups and cultures live in this modern metropolitan community.
When European ships first arrived on the South Florida coast Native American peoples called the Tequesta already inhabited the area.
The first people to live in the area, perhaps as long as 10,000 years ago, were nomads following herds of big game animals such as mammoth and bison. As these animals became extinct, the people turned to smaller game, along with fish and shellfish. Miami-Dade County’s archaeologist has uncovered evidence of these early peoples. The county is one of a very few to have its own archeologist on staff.
In 1998 archaeologists uncovered the “Miami Circle,” a series of holes cut into the oolitic limestone forming a 38-foot diameter circle located on the south side of the mouth of the Miami River. Radiocarbon testing of artifacts found at the site suggests that it is about 2,000 years old and that it served as a ceremonial site long after the arrival of the Europeans.
Juan Ponce de Leon visited the area in 1513. Two years after founding St. Augustine, Spanish Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first European mission on the Miami River’s north bank in 1567. Hostile Indians and mosquitoes soon forced them to leave. The Spanish controlled Florida for the next 250 years, bringing with them modern weapons and diseases that eventually caused the Tequestas to vanish. In the early 1800s a few Bahamian families accepted Spain’s offer of land and began to settle and farm land along the Miami River.
Spain sold Florida to the United States for five million dollars in 1821. By 1830 the Bahamian lands along the river were purchased and became a slave plantation. A barracks built by the slaves was relocated to downtown’s Lummus Park in the 1920s.
A series of wars against the Seminoles kept the environment hostile to settlers. During the Second Seminole War army troops and navy sailors built Fort Dallas on the north bank of the mouth of the Miami River. At the end of the nineteenth century Henry Flagler built his elegant Royal Palm Hotel on the site so that travelers on his train would have a place to stay when they came to Miami.
When the county was created in 1836, it stretched from Indian Key to Jupiter inlet. By the late 1890s there were fewer than 1,000 residents in all of Dade County.
Indian Key was the first county seat, home to a new courthouse where the bounty from wrecked ships was awarded. The Key West courts were too busy and too far from the eastern keys, so locals persuaded the state to split Monroe and form a new county.
In 1844 the County seat was moved to Miami. Six years later a census reported 96 residents living the area.
Following the Civil War and the passing of the Homestead Act, determined homesteaders slowly began staking claims and farming the land.
Rapid development followed the arrival of the railroad 1896. The City of Miami was incorporated later that year with 344 voters.
The real estate boom of the 1920s was interrupted by a major hurricane and halted by the stock market crash and the Great Depression. On August 24, 1992 one of the country’s worst disasters caused more than $20 billion in damage when Hurricane Andrew hit Miami-Dade County.
Since that time communities have been rebuilt and today tourism and transportation continue to be the major local industries.
Miami -- The name comes from Mayaimi, which means "very large lake" and probably refers to Lake Okeechobee. The Miami River marked the beginning of a canoe trail through the Everglades to the big lake.
Dade – On February 4, 1836 the Florida legislature voted to name the new county for Major Francis Langhorne Dade who was massacred by Indians in north central Florida at the beginning of the Second Seminole War on December 28, 1835.
PortMiami, the Cruise Capital of the World, broke the world passenger record in 2018 with 5,591,839 passengers.
- Miami International Airport is the third largest U.S. airport for international passengers (21.9 million in 2018) and first for international freight (1,952,810 tons in 2018)
- MIA set a new all-time record for annual passenger traffic with 45 million passengers in 2018, over 122,000 passengers each day
- Fourth largest public school district in the United States (2018)
- Population: 2,761,581 (larger than 15 states!)
- Percentage of population foreign-born: 52.9 percent
- Median household income: $46,338
- Registered vehicles: 2,154,913
- Electric Customers: 1,008,149 (2008)
- Miami-Dade County Water Customers: More than 400.000
- Miami-Dade County Wastewater Customers: More than 360,000
- Water Usage: More than 300 million gallons per day
- Average Annual Temperature: 76 degrees
- Average Annual Low Temperature: 59
- Average Annual High Temperature: 89
- Average Annual Precipitation: 58 inches
- Average Annual Chance of Sunshine: 70 percent
- Average Annual Relative Humidity: 84 percent (morning); 63 percent (afternoon)
- Average Annual Wind Speed: 9 mph
- Elevation: 12 feet
- Two national parks:
- Everglades National Park (521,591 acres)
- Biscayne National Park (181,000 acres)
- Registered Voters: 1,438,414
- Total Housing Units: 1,031,955